Vol.1, No.1 (2015)

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Journal of Maize Research and Development

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ISSN: 2467-9305 (Online), ISSN: 2467-9291 (Print)                                                                                                                                                                                   

 DOI Prefix: 10.3126/jmrd
  Journal Information

   Special Issue Information

Editor-in-Chief:      Jiban Shrestha    Publication Frequency:               One Issue per year

Submission E-mail: nmrp2012@gmail.com,

mail@nmrp.gov.np

Nature: Print and Online

Language of Publication:

English

Published by:                        Government of Nepal,                          Nepal Agricultural Research Council,National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal.

Vol.2, No. 1, Dec. 2016                           Published

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Journal Metrics:                                 Papers:30, Citations:15, Years:2, Cites/year: 7.5, Cites/paper:0.5

Vol. 1, No. 1,  2015  

Journal of Maize Research and Development, Vol. 1, No.1, 2015  

Table of contents

Articles 

1.Status and prospects of maize research in Nepal.  Pages 1-9.                                                                                       DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jmrd.v1i1.14239    

[Abstract]      [Full Article]
 Journal of Maize Research and Development (2015) 1(1):1-9
ISSN: 2467-9305 (Online)/2467-9291 (Print)
 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.34284  

Status and prospects of maize research in Nepal 

Govind KC, Tika B. Karki, Jiban Shrestha and Buddhi B. Achhami
Abstract
Food and nutritional securities are the major threats coupled with declining factor productivity and climate change effects in Nepal. Maize being the principal food crops of the majority of the hill people and source of animal feed for ever growing livestock industries in Terai of Nepal. Despite the many efforts made to increase the maize productivity in the country, the results are not much encouraging. Many of the maize based technologies developed and recommended for the farmers to date are not fully adopted. Therefore, problem is either on technology development or on dissemination or on both.  Considering the above facts, some of the innovative and modern approaches of plant breeding and crop management technologies to increase the maize yield need to be developed and disseminated. There is a need for location-specific maize production technologies, especially for lowland winter maize, marginal upland maize production system, and resource poor farmers. Research efforts can be targeted to address both yield potential and on-farm yields by reducing the impacts of abiotic and biotic constraints. Therefore, in order to streamline the future direction of maize research in Nepal, an attempt has been made in this article to highlight the present status and future prospects with few key pathways.
Keywords: Maize, research, status, prospects, Nepal

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Govind KC, Tika B. Karki, Jiban Shrestha and Buddhi B. Achhami
2.Tillage and planting density affect the performance of maize hybrids in Chitwan, Nepal. Pages 10-20.                  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jmrd.v1i1.14240   

[Abstract]      [Full Article]
Journal of Maize Research and Development (2015) 1(1):10-20
ISSN: 2467-9305 (Online)/2467-9291 (Print)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.34285

Tillage and planting density affect the performance of maize hybrids in Chitwan, Nepal

Tika Bahadur Karki, Govind KC, Jiban Shrestha and Jitendra P. Yadav
Abstract
To find out whether the different tillage methods at different planting densities affect the performance of maize hybrids, an experiment was carried out at National Maize Research Program, Rampur during spring season of 2013 and 2014. The experiment was laid out in strip plot design with three replications having 12 treatments. The vertical factor was tillage with conservation tillage (No Tillage + residue=NT) and conventional tillage (CT) and the horizontal factor were genotypes (Rampur Hybrid-2 and RML-32/RML-17) and in split planting geometries (75cm × 25cm =53333 plants/ha, 70cm × 25cm=57142 plant/ha and 60cm ×25cm= 66666 plants/ha). In both the years, the highest number of cobs (73,177 and 67638/ha) was recorded at planting density of 66666/ha.  NT had the highest no of kernel rows/cob (14.01) as against 12.12 in CT in 2014. The highest number of kernels (27.3 and 29.29) per row was recorded in NT during 2013 and 2014 respectively. Similarly, in 2014, the highest number of kernels were found in RML-32/RMl-17 (29.17/row) and planting density of 53333/ha (28.46/row).  In 2013, RML-32/RML-17 produced the highest test weight of 363.94g over the Rampur hybrid-2 with 362.17g. Significantly the highest grain yield of 9240.00 kg/ha in 2013 and 7459.80 kg/ha in 2014 at planting geometry of 65cm ×25cm were recorded. No effects was found by tillage methods for grain yields of maize in 2013, but was found in 2014 (7012.18 kg in NT compared to 6037.59 kg/ha  in CT). NT and wider spaced crop matured earlier in both the years; however Rampur hybrid-2 matured earlier to RML-32/RML-17 in 2013. In 2014, harvest index of 47.85 % was recorded in planting geometry of 66666/ha in 2014; the highest benefit cost ratio of 1.36 was worked out in NT and 1.46 at the density of 66666/ha. The highest value of 2.46% of soil organic matter was recorded in NT as compared to 2.43% in CT.
Keywords: Tillage, density, affect, maize, hybrids

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Tika Bahadur Karki, Govind KC, Jiban Shrestha and Jitendra P. Yadav

3.Performance evaluation of quality protein maize genotypes across various maize production                              agro ecologies of Nepal. Pages 21-27.                                                                                                                                      DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jmrd.v1i1.14241      

[Abstract]      [Full Article]
Journal of Maize Research and Development (2015) 1(1):21-27
ISSN: 2467-9305 (Online)/2467-9291 (Print)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.34282 
Performance evaluation of quality protein maize genotypes across various maize production agro ecologies of Nepal
Jiban Shrestha, Keshab B. Koirala,  Ram B. Katuwal, Narayan B. Dhami, Bhanu B. Pokhrel, Bikash Ghimire, Hari K. Prasai, Arjun  Paudel, Keshav Pokhrel and Govind  KC
Abstract
To identify superior quality protein maize genotypes for grain yield under different agro climatic conditions of terai and hill districts in Nepal, the coordinated varietal trials (CVT) were conducted at Dailekh, Doti, Salyan, Lumle and Pakhribas in 2013 and Salyan, Pakhribas and Kabre in 2014 during summer season and coordinated farmer’s field trials (CFFT) at Surkhet and Dailekh in 2013 and Salyan, Pakhribas and Khumaltar in 2014 during summer season. The experiment was carried out using randomized complete block design with three replications for CVT and CFFT. Across the locations and years the superior genotypes found under CVT were S01SIYQ, S01SIWQ-2 and Poshilo Makai-1 where as S99TLYQ-HG-AB, S99TLYQ-B and Poshilo Makai-1 were found superior genotypes under CFFT. The superior genotypes derived from CFFT will be promoted further for similar environments across the country.
Keywords: Evaluation, quality protein maize and grain yield

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Jiban Shrestha, Keshab B. Koirala,  Ram B. Katuwal, Narayan B. Dhami, Bhanu B. Pokhrel, Bikash Ghimire, Hari K. Prasai, Arjun  Paudel, Kesav Pokhrel and Govind KC

4. A review on important maize diseases and their management in Nepal.  Page 28-52.                                        DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jmrd.v1i1.14242            

[Abstract]      [Full Article]
Journal of Maize Research and Development (2015) 1(1):28-52
ISSN: 2467-9305 (Online)/2467-9291 (Print)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.34292
A review on important maize diseases and their management in Nepal
Subash Subedi
Abstract
In Nepal, maize ranks second after rice both in area and production. In recent years, maize area and production has shown a steady increase, but productivity has been low (2.46 t/ha). The major maize producing regions in Nepal are mid hill (72.85%), terai (17.36%) and high hill (9.79%) respectively.  A literature review was carried out to explore major maize diseases and their management in Nepal. The omnipresent incidence of diseases at the pre harvest stage has been an important bottleneck in increasing production. Till now, a total of 78 (75 fungal and 3 bacterial) species are pathogenic to maize crop in Nepal.  The major and economically important maize diseases reported are Gray leaf spot, Northern leaf blight, Southern leaf Blight, Banded leaf and sheath blight, Ear rot, Stalk rot, Head smut, Common rust, Downy mildew and Brown spot. Information on bacterial and virus diseases, nematodes and yield loss assessment is also given. Description of the major maize diseases, their causal organisms, distribution, time and intensity of disease incidence, symptoms, survival, spreads, environmental factors for disease development, yield losses and various disease management strategies corresponded to important maize diseases of Nepal are gathered and compiled thoroughly from the available publications. Concerted efforts of NARC commodity programs, divisions, ARS and RARS involving research on maize pathology and their important outcomes are mentioned. The use of disease management methods focused on host resistance has also been highlighted.
Keywords: Maize, disease, control/ management

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Subash Subedi

5. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal.  Pages 53-63.                 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jmrd.v1i1.14243

[Abstract]      [Full Article]
Journal of Maize Research and Development (2015) 1(1):53-63
ISSN: 2467-9305 (Online)/2467-9291 (Print)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.34293

Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

Buddhi Bahadur Achhami, Santa Bahadur BK and Ghana Shyam Bhandari
Abstract
Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world’s average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and the average plant damage percentage by stem borer was up to 18.11%. Length of the feeding tunnel in maize stem was significantly higher in January than July. In case of exit holes made by borer counted more than four holes per plant that were planted in the month of January. All in all, except the tunnel length measurement per plant, we observed similar pattern in other borer damage parameters such as exit whole counts and plant damage percentage within the tested varieties. Stem borer damage was not significantly affect on grain yield.
Keywords: Hybrid maize stem borer, damage parameters, yield attributes

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Buddhi Bahadur Achhami, Santa Bahadur BK and Ghana Shyam Bhandari

6. Use of optical sensor for in-season nitrogen management and grain yield prediction in maize.  Page 64-70.  
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jmrd.v1i1.14244 

[Abstract]      [Full Article]
Journal of Maize Research and Development (2015) 1(1):64-70
ISSN: 2467-9305 (Online)/2467-9291 (Print)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.34261

Use of optical sensor for in-season nitrogen management and grain yield prediction in maize                 Bandhu Raj Baral and Parbati Adhikari

Abstract
Precision agriculture technologies have developed optical sensors which can determine plant’s normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI).To evaluate the relationship between maize grain yield and early season NDVI readings, an experiment was conducted at farm land of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan during winter season of 2012. Eight different levels of N 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 kg N/ha were applied for hybrid maize RML 32 × RML 17 to study grain yield response and NDVI measurement. Periodic NDVI was measured at 10 days interval from 55 days after sowing (DAS) to 115 DAS by using Green seeker hand held crop sensor. Periodic NDVI measurement taken at a range of growing degree days (GDD) was critical for predicting grain yield potential. Poor exponential relationship existed between NDVI from early reading measured before 208 GDD (55 DAS) and grain yield. At the 261GDD (65DAS) a strong relationship (R2 = 0.70) was achieved between NDVI and grain yield. Later sensor measurements after 571 GDD (95DAS) failed to distinguish variation in green biomass as a result of canopy closure. N level had significantly influenced on NDVI reading, measured grain yield, calculated in season estimated yield (INSEY), predicted yield with added N (YPN), response index (RI) and grain N demand. Measuring NDVI reading by GDD (261–571 GDD) allow a practical window of opportunity for side dress N applications. This study showed that yield potential in maize could be accurately predicted in season with NDVI measured with the Green Seeker crop sensor.
Keywords:  NDVI, GDD, response index, INSEY, grain N demand

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Bandhu Raj Baral and Parbati Adhikari

7. A review on threat of gray leaf spot disease of maize in Asia. Pages 71-85.                                                            DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jmrd.v1i1.14245                        

[Abstract]      [Full Article]
Journal of Maize Research and Development (2015) 1(1):71-85
ISSN: 2467-9305 (Online)/2467-9291 (Print)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.34286

A Review on Threat of Gray Leaf Spot Disease of Maize in Asia

Narayan Bahadur Dhami, S.K. Kim, Arjun Paudel, Jiban Shrestha and Tirtha Raj Rijal
Abstract
Biotic and biotic constraints are yield limiting factors in maize producing regions. Among these gray leaf spot is a yield limiting foliar disease of maize in high land regions of Asia. This review is done from related different national and international journals, thesis, books, research papers etc. The objectives of this review are to become familiar with genetics and inheritance, epidemiology, symptoms and disease management strategies etc. High relative humidity, temperature, minimum tillage and maize monoculture are important factors responsible for disease development. The sibling species of Cercospora zeae-maydis (Tehon and Daniels, 1925) Group I and Group II and Cercospora sorghai var. maydis (Chupp, 1954) are associated with this disease. Pathogens colonize in maize debris. Conidia are the source of inoculums for disease spread. Severe blighting of leaves reduces sugars, stalk lodging and causes premature death of plants resulting in yield losses of up to 100%. Disease management through cultural practices is provisional. The use of fungicides for emergencies is effective however; their prohibitive cost and detrimental effects on the environment are negative consequences. The inheritance of tolerance is quantitative with small additive effects. The introgression of resistant genes among the crosses of resistant germplasm enhances the resistance. The crosses of resistant and susceptible germplasm possess greater stability than the crosses of susceptible and resistant germplasm. The development of gray leaf spot tolerant populations through tolerance breeding principle is an economical and sustainable approach to manage the disease.
Keywords: Cercospora, epidemiology, inheritance, resistance

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Narayan Bahadur Dhami, S.K. Kim, Arjun Paudel, Jiban Shrestha and Tirtha Raj Rijal

8. Application of csm- ceres-maize model for seasonal and multi-decadal predictions of maize yield in under subtropical condition of Chitwan, Nepal.  Pages 86-97.                                                                                                      DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jmrd.v1i1.14246

[Abstract]      [Full Article]
Journal of Maize Research and Development (2015) 1(1):86-97
ISSN: 2467-9305 (Online)/2467-9291 (Print)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.34283

Application of csm- ceres-maize model for seasonal and multi-decadal predictions of maize yield in under subtropical condition of Chitwan, Nepal

Lal Prasad Amgain
Abstract
The average maize yield of 2.5 t/ha in sub-tropical terai and inner terai of Nepal has been very less than its potential yield of about 5.0 t/ha, for which changing climatic scenarios have been reported the critical factors. Cropping system Model (CSM)-Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-Maize, embedded under Decision Support System for Agro-technology Transfer (DSSAT) ver. 4.2 was evaluated from a datasets of field experimentation by growing four diverse maize genotypes viz. full season OPV (Rampur Composite), Quality Protein Maize (Posilo Makai-1), Hybrid (Gaurav) and Pop corn (Pool-12) under three different planting dates (September 1, October 1 and November 1) in 2009-10 at Rampur Campus, Chitwan. The experiment was laid out in two factor factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in slightly acidic (pH 6.7) sandy loam soil having low soil available N( 0.49%) and K (148 kg/ha)  and medium P (16.3 kg/ha) status. The ancillary and yield data obtaining from field experiment was analyzed from the M-Stat C software and recorded that Gaurav hybrid produced significantly higher yield under September 1 planting (5.86 t/ha) followed by Posilo Makai 1 (5.55 t/ha), Rampur Composite (5.1t/ha) and the least with Pool-12 (3.45 t/ha). Further, the heat use efficiency of diverse maize genotypes were also calculated by using the mean temperature based accumulative heat unit system and found the stable yields only with Rampur Composite for all planting dates and the rest genotypes were suitable only to the early winter plantings. Model calibration was done by using September 1 planting date for all 4 maize genotypes while validation was accomplished by using the remaining treatments for predicting growth and yield of different maize genotypes. The year 2006- 07 was found 13, 18, 23 and 7% higher in producing the maize yield than the standard year 2009-10 for Rampur Composite, Posilo Makai-1, Gaurav and Pool-12, respectively. Further, the different climate change scenarios as advocated by IPCC (2007) for 2020, 2050 and 2080 from base line of 2009-10 was studied to simulate the growth and yield performance of diverse maize genotypes with September 1 planting date and found that there would be increment in winter maize yield up to 2020 scenario of climate change and the drastic yield loss would be on 2050 to 2080 scenarios under the present levels of agronomic management options and urged for the new climate change adaptation and mitigation production technologies.
Keywords: CSM-CERES- Maize,maize yield,seasonal and multi-decadal yield prediction

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Lal Prasad Amgain

9. Survey on maize post-harvest losses and its management practices in the western hills of Nepal.                          Pages 98-105.                                                                                                                                                                              DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jmrd.v1i1.14247  

[Abstract]      [Full Article]
Journal of Maize Research and Development (2015) 1(1):98-105
ISSN: 2467-9305 (Online)/2467-9291 (Print)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.34288

Survey on maize post-harvest losses and its management practices in the western hills of Nepal

Ghanashyam Bhandari, Buddhi Bahadur Achhami, Tika Bahadur Karki, Balram Bhandari and Gopal Bhandari
Abstract
A survey was conducted in order to assess the losses of maize under farmers’ storage conditions in the Western hills of Nepal in 2014. The survey area included Thanapati Village Development Committee (VDC) of Gulmi, Aalamdebi VDC of Syangja, Khasauli VDC of Palpa and Baglung municipality-12, Baglung district. Primary information was collected through semi-structured questionnaires among the heterogenous groups of the farming communities. Survey revealed that about 61% respondents reported the storage pest as the major pests and about 12% respondents reported that field pests as the major pests in the western hills.  Maize weevil (Sitophylus zeamais Mostsch.) and Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Oliv.) were found to be major storage insect pests in surveyed areas. Majority of respondents (39%) presumed on 10-20% losses during storage. Among the other biotic factors, farmers ranked insect (42%), weeds (32%) and diseases (17%) respectively. Maize storage methods had distinct among the surveyed areas compared with Baglung district to other surveyed areas. In Baglung, about (73%) farmers had stored maize in the form of grain whereas in Palpa, Gulmi and Syangja, about (77%) farmers had practice of  storing maize with husk for 5-7 months. Approximately, 40% respondents were using open floor in upper stair “Aanti”as a major maize storage place in Palpa, Gulmi and Syangja whereas almost (79%) of respondents were using sacks to store shelled grains in Baglung. Hence, there is ample opportunity to reduce the storage losses of maize depending upon the existing situation.
Keywords: Maize, Weevil, Infestation, Storage, Post-harvest losses

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Ghanashyam Bhandari, Buddhi Bahadur Achhami, Tika Bahadur Karki, Balram Bhandari and Gopal Bhandari  

 10. Performance evaluation of early maize genotypes in far western hills of Nepal. Pages 106-111.                        DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jmrd.v1i1.14248                 

[Abstract]      [Full Article]
Journal of Maize Research and Development (2015) 1(1):106-111
ISSN: 2467-9305 (Online)/2467-9291 (Print)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.34291

Performance evaluation of early maize genotypes in far western hills of Nepal 

Hari Kumar Prasai, Ujjawal Kumar Singh Kushwaha, Bishnu Prasad Joshi and Jiban Shrestha

Abstract
Initial evaluation trial of maize (early) genotypes was carried out at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Doti, Nepal in 2013 and 2014. Total fourteen and fifteen genotypes of early maize were included in initial evaluation experiment of the year 2013 and 2014 respectively. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in each year. Out of the tested genotypes, SO3TEY/LN, ZM 423 and SO3TEY-FM (ER) identified as promising from statistical analysis over year. All the tested characters were found statistically significant. Similarly, the coordinated varietal trial of maize (early) was also carried out in the same station at 2013 and 2014. Total fourteen genotypes in 2013 and fifteen genotypes in 2015 of maize (early) were included in the experiment. The RCB design was applied and the experiment was replicated three times in every year. ZM 627 and ZM 621/Pool -15 genotypes identified as superior next to Arun-2 from the analysis of two year data. All the tested traits were found statistically significant in over year analysis.
Keywords: Performance, evaluation, maize, genotypes

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Hari Kumar Prasai, Ujjawal Kumar Singh Kushwaha, Bishnu Prasad Joshi and Jiban Shrestha

11. Productivity and profitability of maize-pumpkin mix cropping in Chitwan, Nepal. Pages 112-122.                   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jmrd.v1i1.14249           

[Abstract]      [Full Article]
Journal of Maize Research and Development (2015) 1(1):112-122
ISSN: 2467-9305 (Online)/2467-9291 (Print)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.34290

Productivity and profitability of maize-pumpkin mix cropping in Chitwan, Nepal

Shiva Chandra Dhakal, Punya Prasad Regmi, Resham Bahadur Thapa, Shrawan Kumar Sah and Dilli Bahadur Khatri-Chhetri
Abstract

The study was conducted to determine the productivity, profitability and resource use efficiency of maize-pumpkin mix crop production in Chitwan. The study used 53 maize-pumpkin mix crop adopting farmers from among  300 farmers adopting different pollinator friendly practices. Descriptive and statistical tools including Cobb-Douglas production function were used to analyze data, collected from structured interview schedule. The benefit cost ratio (1.58) indicates that maize-pumpkin mix cropping was profitable with productivity of 2.83 ton per ha on maize main product equivalent basis. The magnitude of regression coefficients of maize-pumpkin mix cropping implied that expenditure on seed and fertilizer and irrigation had significant positive effect on gross return with estimated decreasing return to scale (0.85). According to estimated  allocative efficiency indices, it is suggested to increase expenditure on seed and fertilizer cum irrigation by about 90% and 55% respectively. Extension of modern technologies with adjustment on resource use is to be encouraged for increase in productivity and profitability of maize-pumpkin mix crop production which indirectly promotes and ensure  forage for pollinators.  

Keywords: Productivity, profitability, returns to scale, Allocative efficiency, Cobb-Douglas production function, pollinators

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Shiva Chandra Dhakal, Punya Prasad Regmi, Resham Bahadur Thapa, Shrawan Kumar Sah and Dilli Bahadur Khatri-Chhetri

12. Simulation of growth and yield of rainfed maize under varied agronomic management and changing climatic scenario in Nawalparasi, Nepal. Pages 123-133.                                                                                             DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jmrd.v1i1.14250                                                    

[Abstract]      [Full Article]
Journal of Maize Research and Development (2015) 1(1):123-133
ISSN: 2467-9305 (Online)/2467-9291 (Print)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.34289

Simulation of growth and yield of rainfed maize under varied agronomic management and changing climatic scenario in Nawalparasi, Nepal

Umesh Shrestha, Lal Prasad Amgain, Tika Bahadur karki, Khem Raj Dahal
Abstract
 A field experiment and simulation modeling study in combination for different maize cultivars planted at different sowing dates were accomplished at Kawasoti-5, Nawalparasi during spring season of 2013 to assess the impact of climate change scenario as predicted by IPCC in rainfed spring maize by using CSM-CERES-Maize model. Result showed that RML-4/RML-17 produced higher kernel rows/ ear (13.77), kernel per row (30.42) and test weight (244.9 g). Significantly higher grain yield was also found for RML-4/RML-17 (6.03 t/ha) compared to Poshilo makai-1 (4.73 t/ha), Arun-2 (3.55 t/ha) and Local (2.92 t/ha). Earlier sowing date (7th April) actually produced higher kernel/row (27.97), kernel rows/ear (12.89) and 1000 grain weight (230 g). Significantly higher grain yield (5.13t/ha) was obtained in earlier sowing date (7th April). The CSM-CERES-Maize model was calibrated and found well validated with days to anthesis (RMSE= 0.426 day and D-index= 0.998), days to physiological maturity (RMSE=0.674 day and D-index= 0.999), number of grain/m2at maturity (RMSE= 85.287 grain /m2and D-index= 0.993), unit weight at maturity (RMSE=0.012 g/kernel and D-index= 0.854) and grain yield (RMSE=54.94 kg/haand D-index= 1.00). The model was found sensitive to climate change parameters. The sensitivity for various climate change parameter indicated that there was severely decreased trend in simulated rainfed spring maize yield with the increment of maximum and minimum temperature, decrease in solar radiation and decrease carbondioxide concentration. Even 20C rise in temperature can decrease around 15-20% yield of spring maize and this negative effect was even more pronounced in hybrid than other cultivars.
Keywords:Spring maize, Sowing dates, Cultivars, Grain yield, CSM_CERES-Maize model, Climate Change

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Umesh Shrestha, Lal P. Amgain, Tika B. Karki and Khem R. Dahal

13. Analysis of chlorophyll content and its correlation with yield attributing traits on early varieties of maize (zea mays).  Pages 134-145.                                                                                                                                               DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jmrd.v1i1.14251

[Abstract]      [Full Article]
Journal of Maize Research and Development (2015) 1(1):134-145
ISSN: 2467-9305 (Online)/2467-9291 (Print)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.34263

Analysis of chlorophyll content and its correlation with yield attributing traits on early varieties of maize (zea mays L.)

Bikal Ghimire, Deepika Timsina and  Jyotsna Nepal

Abstract
Chlorophyll has direct roles on photosynthesis and hence closely relates to capacity for photosynthesis, development and yield of crops. With object to explore the roles of chlorophyll content and its relation with other yield attributing traits a field research was conducted using fourteen early genotypes of maize in RCBD design with three replications. Observations were made for Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) reading, ear weight, number of kernel row/ear, number of kernel/row, five hundred kernel weight and grain yield / hectare and these traits were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and  correlation coefficient analysis. SPAD reading showed a non-significant variation among the genotypes while it revealed significant correlation with no. of kernel / row, grain yield / hectare and highly significant correlation with no. of kernel row / ear and ear weight which are the most yield determinative traits. For the trait grain yield/ha followed by number of kernel row/ear genotype ARUN-1EV has been found comparatively superior to ARUN-2(standard check). Grain Yield / hectare was highly heritable (>0.6) while no. of kernel / row, SPAD reading, ear weight, number of kernel row/ear were moderately heritable (0.3-0.6). Correlation analysis and ANOVA revealed ARUN-1EV, comparatively superior to ARUN-2(standard check), had higher SPAD reading than mean SPAD reading with significant correlation with no. of kernel/row, no. of kernel row/ear, ear weight and grain yield/ha which are all yield determinative traits . This showed positive and significant effect of chlorophyll content in grain yield of the maize.
Keywords:  maize, correlation coefficient, chlorophyll content

[How to cite this article]

Bikal Ghimire, Deepika Timsina and Jyotsna Nepal

14.Technology adoption analysis of improved maize technology in western hills of Nepal. Pages 146-152  
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jmrd.v1i1.14252

[Abstract]      [Full Article] 
Journal of Maize Research and Development (2015) 1(1):146-152
ISSN: 2467-9305 (Online)/2467-9291 (Print)

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.34265

Technology adoption analysis of improved maize technology in western hills of Nepal

Jeevan Lamichhane, Krishna P. Timsina, Durga B. RanaBhat and Surya Adhikari
Abstract
The survey was carried out in two districts namely Palpa and Baglung to determine the current level of adoption of improved maize production practices. This study identifies the technology adoption extent and pattern of improved maize technologies in Western Hills of Nepal. In each of these districts, two village development committees (V.D.Cs) were surveyed. Deurali and Khasyouli V.D.C from Palpa and Kudule and Malika V.D.C from Baglung Districts were selected. Structured Questionnaire were administered to 30 randomly selected households in each VDC. Altogether 120 Households were surveyed. The degree of adoption was measured on the seed rate, adoption of improved varieties, application of Nitrogenous, Phosphatic and Potassium fertilizer, Weeding and method of planting. The adoption index was used to determine the adoption level of the respondents. There seems to be a gap between the recommended practice and current level of practice at the farmers level in some of the factors like Nitrogenous, Phosphorus and Potassium fertilizers, method of planting .The study revealed that majority farmers belonged to high adoption category(57%) followed by medium adoption category(54%) and low adoption category(9%). The Technology Adoption Index (TAI) was found 63%. In nutshell there is still large scope for yield improvement of the maize in the study area by adopting improved maize varieties.
Keywords: Maize, adoption, improved variety, respondents

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Jeevan Lamichhane, Krishna P. Timsina, Durga B. Ranabhat and Surya Adhikari        

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